Strengthen the management of breeding and production

Strengthen the management of breeding and production
Fish live in water environment not only has the fish living necessary oxygen, food etc., also contain harmful to fish biological pathogens and non pathogens, when the relationship between fish and environmental and pathogen in equilibrium, fish in the water can live a normal life growth, and a Fangli lose balance, fish diseases may occur. For example, when the density of fish in the pond is too large, or a sudden change in weather may cause fish necessary material deficiency or insufficiency, or cause water in the dissolved oxygen is low caused by hypoxia. These can lead to changes in the body function, causing diseases and even death. If the change of water environment is conducive to a large number of pathogens, it will make the fish pathogenic. Environment can not only promote the occurrence of the disease, but also hinder the development of the disease. Therefore, occurrence of fish diseases is not isolated caused by a single factor, and always is the role of the interaction of inside and outside environment of the fish body, the interdependence between fish and environment, pathogen, restrict each other, organic combination of become a complex ecological system, that is, the water parasitic ecosystem. To maintain the balance of the ecological system of the breeding water body, to create a conducive environment for the growth of fish and aquatic animals, can achieve the purpose of preventing and reducing the incidence of fish. This is what is commonly known as ecological disease prevention.
To strengthen the management of breeding, and the content of the category of disease prevention and control. Continuous improvement feeding and management measures, improve the body resistance to disease in fish, ensure the balance relationship between the fish body, the environment and the pathogen; reasonable polyculture, and dense cultivation, quality feeding and reasonable fertilization, strengthen daily management of aquaculture.
Reasonable polyculture and dense cultivation is to improve the yield per unit area of one of the measures, for the prevention of fish disease also have certain positive significance, stocking improper proportion or density is too large, resulting in water feed the lack of water and oxygen in low for a long time, the fish growth slow, emaciated body, disease resistant force is reduced, susceptible to various diseases caused by a large number of deaths.
Adhere to the “quality” of feeding is to strengthen the breeding management, one of the most important management measures to prevent the occurrence of fish diseases. “Four” feeding is depending on the developmental stage of kinds of fish, fish, fish in the moat and season, the weather, the water temperature and water quality conditions and selection of wide source, low price, eating fish, good quality food, in proper time and a fish pond in proper position and feeding in sufficient quantities. Often referred to as the “four” (qualitative, quantitative, timing, positioning) feeding the specific methods of operation are as follows: qualitative; feeding bait to fresh and with a certain amount of nutrients, with pathogens or toxic substances, palatability is good, suitable for different species and size of fish feeding. When the condition is best, it is best to make the feed, to improve the nutritional value and reduce the loss of the feed ingredients in water. When necessary in the feeding of food before disinfection, especially in fish season to do more,
Quantitative: daily feeding to a certain amount, requirements make it appropriate and uniform, to prevent too much too little, suddenly more and less. In order to improve the use of fish to feed rate, promote growth, reduce disease, reduce the feed coefficient. The amount of feeding is the most important factor in the feeding technique. Feeding too little, the nutritional content of diets enough to sustain fish life activities, to grow with little; feeding too much, the fish to eat too full, will reduce the rate of digestion of food, improve the feed coefficient, and easy to cause diseases, reduce the survival rate and growth rate. Too much food will not only cause the waste of food, but also bad water quality.
The daily feeding amount according to the specific circumstances, such as high and low temperature, sunny and rainy weather, water fat and fish feeding situation should be flexibility, generally within 3 hours after the appropriate.
Timing: normal weather, generally in 8 ~ 9 and 14 ~ 15 by feeding 1 times. In early spring and late autumn and early winter when the water temperature is low, usually at noon feeding 1 times. In summer, the water temperature is too high, the afternoon feeding time delayed properly. In a dense flow pool with feeding principle should be “eating”, each can put less points, but increased feeding frequency.
There must be a fixed location; feeding feed, fish bait to develop the habit of eating table fixed. Such not only can reduce feed waste and easy to observe the activity of the fish, easy to check the feeding, easy to remove uneaten food and food for disinfection to ensure farmed fish to eat health, is convenient for disinfection of fish drugs in fish disease incidence of the season, so as to improve the effect of prevention.
Feeding grass bait available bamboo into a triangular or square food box, easy to eat and clean up, Grass Carp megalobramaamblycephala left bait. The frame is fixed on the north shore of the pond, Xiangyang, and little to no shade, near the shore with stakes position.
Feeding merchandise bait, should be in the water below 30 ~ 40 cm with the reed mat or a bamboo mat barricaded area of 1 ~ 2 M L food and Taiwan, feeding on the eat desk and mesopelagic fish feeding. Demersal fish Nai material and Taiwan should be located in shore of 1.3 to 1.7 meters below the surface of the water, fertilization effect is mainly increase the nutrients in aquaculture water, make the plankton growth and reproduce rapidly, provide plenty of food for fish farming. Fertilizer fertilization of base fertilizer and top dressing in two ways. For thin water of the pond and the new pond, in order to change the nutritional status of sediment to become pond fish live comfortable environment, lasting supply of fish in the moat enough natural bait, it is necessary to apply sufficient base fertilizer. Fertilizer is to make water natural bait to maintain strong enough for breeding, feeding the fish. “In time, a small amount of fertilizer should be mastered, many” principle. Top dressing with the fermented manure or compost mixed pulp is better, without the fermentation of manure should be piled up by the side of the fish pond retting for several days and then evenly sprinkle people pool.
Because of the ecological environment is very complicated, we must strengthen the daily management, such as adhering to the daily morning, middle and late 1 times, especially in the morning. The pond should be paid attention to when the fish has no floating phenomenon, changes in water quality, fish activity, there are no problems etc.. Improve aquaculture water environment health, often weeds, often in addition to predators and pathogens of the intermediate host, timely remove residual bait and fish, regular cleaning and disinfection feeding grounds, inhibit the pathogen to multiply and spread, and standardize the operation, prevent injured fish, can Naga fish: a good living environment, enhance disease resistant ability of the fish body.
China also has many successful examples of ecological prevention and control. Such as rice grass carp culture, not only can make the rice yield and per mu paddy can gain 10 ~ 15 cm of the grass carp 300 ~ 500 tail. In the process of breeding paddy grass species, no epidemic. Also used for the Great Lakes area breeding characteristics raise double cropping grass carp to avoid the peak incidence of hemorrhage, in the pond in every year is divided into two batches of grass carp breeding species, the first species hemorrhage before the arrival of the peak of the epidemic, that every year in August, fish from the pond lake; the second batch of fish is put into the fish ponds in the aftermath of the epidemic peak of the hemorrhage. These are all make full use of in favor of fingerling cultivating ecological factors, and to avoid the epidemic peak pond environment on fish growth unfavorable ecological factors.

Fish disease prevention

Fish disease prevention
Fish disease prevention and control work must follow the principle of “no disease prevention, early treatment, prevention is more important on the treatment course, to avoid and reduce diseases caused by the loss. Because fish and other aquatic animals living in the water, their activities, people are not easy to detect, once sick, and timely and correct diagnosis and treatment have certain difficulties. Especially after the occurrence of many diseases, the disease of fish has no appetite, even with the use of specific drugs, can not enter the fish moving objects. Bird, animal disease by oral administration or injection of drugs and other methods of treatment, and the diseased fish, especially the fry and fingerling cannot adopt these methods. As a result, the use of oral medication for fish diseases, only in fish has not lost their appetite, it is more effective. In vitro drug use can only be applied to small areas of fish ponds, and for large areas of lakes, reservoirs or water fish is very difficult. Prevention and treatment, prevention and treatment, prevention first, in the prevention of the eradication of infectious diseases, as far as possible to cut off the route of transmission and invasion, but also to improve the disease resistance of fish, take comprehensive preventive measures to achieve the desired effect.
Disinfection of aquaculture water
Breeding water body is the place where fish live and grow, the quality of water environment, directly affect the health of the fish, so we must pay attention to the disinfection work of breeding environment. In recent years, due to the fish aquaculture neglect cleaning disinfection, the occurrence of freshwater fish bacterial septicemia to freshwater aquaculture in China brings loss is heavy, the lesson is profound. The pond cleaning disinfection mainly including dressing and drug cleaning pond.
Dressing fish pond fish culture water, especially fish ponds, after a period of time the fish, silt by HSI accumulation, if too much silt, not only affect the capacity of water and on water quality deterioration and pathogen growth, reproduction are the promotion of the role. Ignore the sludge removal work, provides a living environment for pathogens, causing diseases continue to occur, to bring greater losses. Dredging method and times often manpower digging pick and mechanical desilting and dredging in winter, to drain the water in the pool, and then clear the silt. After dredging for exposure to the fish pond, cold frozen for a period of time, and then filling it, in order to kill the remnants of the pathogen and fish predators.
Drug cleaning
Various types of aquaculture water, in addition to the cultured fishes for aquatic economic animals, exist including bacteria, algae, qingni moss, clam and snail aquatic insects, frogs, wild miscellaneous fish and aquatic plants, and other organisms. Fish pond water, give them provides a living water environment, some of them itself is a fish pathogen, some media of transmission of pathogens, some of them are fish predators and must therefore be manual removal and disinfected, to kill them. Medicine commonly used lime, bleaching powder and tea etc..
Is the best disinfection method of lime pondthe recognized. Lime is the lime, which is not the massive lime, commonly known as “pipe ash” (calcium chloride, CaO). Lime pondthe dry pondpond pond with water and two kinds of methods
Dry cleaning pond is in dressing the fish pond, the bottom of the pool, leaving only 6 ~ 10 cm deep water, in the bottom of the pool everywhere dug several pits, prepare investment and quicklime is now Tang hydration. How much is small, so that it can be poured over the whole pool. A small pit is dug, the lime into the water, ranging from the cooling to the surrounding it, across the pond everywhere (including embankment foot). Lime dosage is generally 75 kg per mu,
The amount of lime pond with water for 150 kg per mu in aquaculture water depth of 1 meters. Pond with water. First lime water, the water after the pool splash; better is the lime Sheng in the wicker basket, hanging on the boat, sinking into the water, a rowing boat in pool and amble, lime slurry scattered water soluble. Lime pond run out of time, good effect. Lime pond can not only kill the pathogens in the pool and other aquatic organisms and to clarify the pool water, precipitating the suspension of colloidal organic matter, such as cement, at the same time, the pool of mud and mineralization, the release of mud adsorbed nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other elements, increase water and fertilizer. In addition, lime in case of water into hydrogen chloride calcium, but also absorb carbon chloride precipitation of calcium carbonate, calcium carbonate to the silt into the porous structure, improve ventilation conditions of the bottom of the pool, accelerating the decomposition of organic matter of the role, calcium carbonate and stable water pH value of the role of thin Lin, is beneficial to the fish’s life, calcium is also essential for plant nutrition elements, so the application of lime, also played a role of fertilization.
Bleach cleaning, convenient operation, time-saving. Bleaching powder can kill wild and miscellaneous fish and other predators, bactericidal effect is very strong, but not of lime to improve water quality and make the water fertilizer effect, and bleaching powder easily deliquescence, easy to reduce the effect, the chlorine stable. Bleaching powder containing about 30% available chlorine, used to determine the content to accurately determine its use, by 30% of the available chlorine bleaching powder, mu 1 meters deep water use bleaching powder 13.5 kg, namely 1 meter no water amount 20 grams, that is, to make the water of 20 mg / L concentration. At present, there are sodium dichloroisocyanurate, trichloro isocyanide uric acid, monochloramine t chlorine containing drugs can also be used on the market, but it should be accurate calculation, so as to avoid ineffective or economic uneconomical,
Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and other areas in the habit of using tea fish pond. The tea cake is pomace remaining plants of Camellia fruit oil, saponin containing camp, haemolytic toxin. Tea can kill wild and miscellaneous fish, frog and tadpole Dou, snails, mussels, leech, shrimp, crab and some insects, but the fish pathogenic bacteria without killing effect, can help storm algae breeding, disease prevention effect than lime. Tea amount per mu water depth 1 m of water with 50 kg or so, use the method is, the first grinding tea, put in in a tank of water and warm water immersion, soaking for 1 day and night to use, with even the residue with water, edge spill edge water, times evenly sprinkle.