Strengthen the management of breeding and production
Fish live in water environment not only has the fish living necessary oxygen, food etc., also contain harmful to fish biological pathogens and non pathogens, when the relationship between fish and environmental and pathogen in equilibrium, fish in the water can live a normal life growth, and a Fangli lose balance, fish diseases may occur. For example, when the density of fish in the pond is too large, or a sudden change in weather may cause fish necessary material deficiency or insufficiency, or cause water in the dissolved oxygen is low caused by hypoxia. These can lead to changes in the body function, causing diseases and even death. If the change of water environment is conducive to a large number of pathogens, it will make the fish pathogenic. Environment can not only promote the occurrence of the disease, but also hinder the development of the disease. Therefore, occurrence of fish diseases is not isolated caused by a single factor, and always is the role of the interaction of inside and outside environment of the fish body, the interdependence between fish and environment, pathogen, restrict each other, organic combination of become a complex ecological system, that is, the water parasitic ecosystem. To maintain the balance of the ecological system of the breeding water body, to create a conducive environment for the growth of fish and aquatic animals, can achieve the purpose of preventing and reducing the incidence of fish. This is what is commonly known as ecological disease prevention.
To strengthen the management of breeding, and the content of the category of disease prevention and control. Continuous improvement feeding and management measures, improve the body resistance to disease in fish, ensure the balance relationship between the fish body, the environment and the pathogen; reasonable polyculture, and dense cultivation, quality feeding and reasonable fertilization, strengthen daily management of aquaculture.
Reasonable polyculture and dense cultivation is to improve the yield per unit area of one of the measures, for the prevention of fish disease also have certain positive significance, stocking improper proportion or density is too large, resulting in water feed the lack of water and oxygen in low for a long time, the fish growth slow, emaciated body, disease resistant force is reduced, susceptible to various diseases caused by a large number of deaths.
Adhere to the “quality” of feeding is to strengthen the breeding management, one of the most important management measures to prevent the occurrence of fish diseases. “Four” feeding is depending on the developmental stage of kinds of fish, fish, fish in the moat and season, the weather, the water temperature and water quality conditions and selection of wide source, low price, eating fish, good quality food, in proper time and a fish pond in proper position and feeding in sufficient quantities. Often referred to as the “four” (qualitative, quantitative, timing, positioning) feeding the specific methods of operation are as follows: qualitative; feeding bait to fresh and with a certain amount of nutrients, with pathogens or toxic substances, palatability is good, suitable for different species and size of fish feeding. When the condition is best, it is best to make the feed, to improve the nutritional value and reduce the loss of the feed ingredients in water. When necessary in the feeding of food before disinfection, especially in fish season to do more,
Quantitative: daily feeding to a certain amount, requirements make it appropriate and uniform, to prevent too much too little, suddenly more and less. In order to improve the use of fish to feed rate, promote growth, reduce disease, reduce the feed coefficient. The amount of feeding is the most important factor in the feeding technique. Feeding too little, the nutritional content of diets enough to sustain fish life activities, to grow with little; feeding too much, the fish to eat too full, will reduce the rate of digestion of food, improve the feed coefficient, and easy to cause diseases, reduce the survival rate and growth rate. Too much food will not only cause the waste of food, but also bad water quality.
The daily feeding amount according to the specific circumstances, such as high and low temperature, sunny and rainy weather, water fat and fish feeding situation should be flexibility, generally within 3 hours after the appropriate.
Timing: normal weather, generally in 8 ~ 9 and 14 ~ 15 by feeding 1 times. In early spring and late autumn and early winter when the water temperature is low, usually at noon feeding 1 times. In summer, the water temperature is too high, the afternoon feeding time delayed properly. In a dense flow pool with feeding principle should be “eating”, each can put less points, but increased feeding frequency.
There must be a fixed location; feeding feed, fish bait to develop the habit of eating table fixed. Such not only can reduce feed waste and easy to observe the activity of the fish, easy to check the feeding, easy to remove uneaten food and food for disinfection to ensure farmed fish to eat health, is convenient for disinfection of fish drugs in fish disease incidence of the season, so as to improve the effect of prevention.
Feeding grass bait available bamboo into a triangular or square food box, easy to eat and clean up, Grass Carp megalobramaamblycephala left bait. The frame is fixed on the north shore of the pond, Xiangyang, and little to no shade, near the shore with stakes position.
Feeding merchandise bait, should be in the water below 30 ~ 40 cm with the reed mat or a bamboo mat barricaded area of 1 ~ 2 M L food and Taiwan, feeding on the eat desk and mesopelagic fish feeding. Demersal fish Nai material and Taiwan should be located in shore of 1.3 to 1.7 meters below the surface of the water, fertilization effect is mainly increase the nutrients in aquaculture water, make the plankton growth and reproduce rapidly, provide plenty of food for fish farming. Fertilizer fertilization of base fertilizer and top dressing in two ways. For thin water of the pond and the new pond, in order to change the nutritional status of sediment to become pond fish live comfortable environment, lasting supply of fish in the moat enough natural bait, it is necessary to apply sufficient base fertilizer. Fertilizer is to make water natural bait to maintain strong enough for breeding, feeding the fish. “In time, a small amount of fertilizer should be mastered, many” principle. Top dressing with the fermented manure or compost mixed pulp is better, without the fermentation of manure should be piled up by the side of the fish pond retting for several days and then evenly sprinkle people pool.
Because of the ecological environment is very complicated, we must strengthen the daily management, such as adhering to the daily morning, middle and late 1 times, especially in the morning. The pond should be paid attention to when the fish has no floating phenomenon, changes in water quality, fish activity, there are no problems etc.. Improve aquaculture water environment health, often weeds, often in addition to predators and pathogens of the intermediate host, timely remove residual bait and fish, regular cleaning and disinfection feeding grounds, inhibit the pathogen to multiply and spread, and standardize the operation, prevent injured fish, can Naga fish: a good living environment, enhance disease resistant ability of the fish body.
China also has many successful examples of ecological prevention and control. Such as rice grass carp culture, not only can make the rice yield and per mu paddy can gain 10 ~ 15 cm of the grass carp 300 ~ 500 tail. In the process of breeding paddy grass species, no epidemic. Also used for the Great Lakes area breeding characteristics raise double cropping grass carp to avoid the peak incidence of hemorrhage, in the pond in every year is divided into two batches of grass carp breeding species, the first species hemorrhage before the arrival of the peak of the epidemic, that every year in August, fish from the pond lake; the second batch of fish is put into the fish ponds in the aftermath of the epidemic peak of the hemorrhage. These are all make full use of in favor of fingerling cultivating ecological factors, and to avoid the epidemic peak pond environment on fish growth unfavorable ecological factors.
Strengthen the management of breeding and production